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DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS

Introduction

The Upper West Akim District was not in existence as at 2010 when the national Population and Housing Census (PHC) was conducted. However, after the creation of the District in 2011, the population of the District had to be extracted from the population of the West Akim Municipality. The population of the District was therefore arrived at as a result of scientific extrapolation from the 2010 national population and housing census of the Municipality from which the district was created.

Population Size and Distribution

The population of the Upper West Akim District is 87,051 according to the 2010 Population and Housing Census. The District has a total female population of 44,212 representing approximately 51 percent of the total population of the district while that of the male is 42,839 (49%). This means that the District has more female population than males in line with both regional and national population figures. The district has a population structure of a high percentage of people below 40 years. The Pyramid shows the age and sex structure of the population in the district (see Figure 2.1).

The Figure 2.1 depicts population characteristics similar to that of the national population pyramid, and typical of a developing society with a broad base and narrowing thinly at the top. The base of the pyramid is broad meaning that a lot of people fall below 45 years. Again, the narrow apex shows that there are a few people who live beyond age 95 years and above. This also means that life expectancy is low as compared to the developed countries, most of which have the apex of their population pyramid to be relatively broader than the population pyramid of the developing countries.


Age, Sex and type of locality

The sex ratio is the relationship between the females and males in a given population usually expressed as the number of males for every 100 females. The sex ratio at birth in most countries is about 105 or 106 males per 100 females. After birth, sex ratios vary because of the different patterns of mortality and migration for males and females within the population. Table 2.1 shows the population by five year age-groups, sex ratios, type of locality, and age dependency ratio of Upper West Akim District according to the 2010 population and housing census. Out of the total population of 87,051, the age group 0-4 years has the largest population of 12,636 persons followed by persons in age group 5-9 (11,850). Third is the age group 10-14 which has a population of 10,960. This is demonstrated by the broad base nature of the population shown in the population pyramid in Figure 2.1.

Table 2.1 shows also that the sex ratio for the total population is 96.9 males per 100 females which means that there are more females than males in the district. In broad terms, the sex ratio for the age group 0 –14 years is higher for the males but decrease for females after age 15 years.

Dependency ratio

The age dependency ratio of a population is the ratio of persons in the dependent ages or the economically inactive (under 15 years and older than 64 years) compared to those in the economically active or productive ages of the population (15- 64 years). This is arrived at by adding the population of 0-14years who are economically inactive to the economically inactive population of 65 years and above and dividing it by the economically active population (population ages 15–64) expressed as a ratio. A high dependency ratio means that very few of the economically active population work to cater for the economically inactive population.

The Upper West Akim District has a dependency ratio of 86.3. This means that for every 100 people in the district, about 86.3 of them work to take care of the rest. This means that out of every 100 people in the district, 13 of them are not working to earn a living and must be catered for by others who are working.

2.4 Fertility, Mortality and Migration

The size of the population is affected by fertility, mortality and migration rates. Fertility, mortality and migration are key indicators for effective planning of a nation. Data on fertility, mortality and migration are needed by policy makers and planners to make informed decisions. The 2010 PHC provide a more comprehensive data on fertility, mortality and migration in terms 17 of coverage. This section deals with important areas of fertility, mortality and migration in the Upper West Akim District. Comparisons are made to other districts in the region.


Fertility

The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) derived from the census data is presented in this section. This data is relevant for the socio-economic planning in the district and region as a whole.

Table 2.2 shows the distribution of total fertility rate by districts in the eastern region. The total fertility rate was higher in the Kwahu Afram plains south (4.7) and lower in the New Juaben Municipal (2.4). The table 2.2 below shows the inter-district fertility rate for Eastern Region. The Upper West Akim District has a total fertility rate of 4.2. This means a child bearing woman in the district gives birth to an average of 4 children. This is higher than the Eastern Regional fertility rate of 3..

Mortality

Mortality refers to all deaths that occurred in the household during the 12 months preceding the Census Night. Data on mortality rates were collected from the fertility and mortality sections of the 2010 PHC questionnaire. The mortality rate among other things reflects on the growth and health status of a population. Data resulting from the responses to questions on “births and deaths 18

 

in the last 12 months” and those obtained from responses relating to children ever born and children surviving are used in estimating mortality rates.

Table 2.3 shows that the East Akim Municipality recorded a total of 1,427 deaths in households making it the highest among the districts in the Eastern Region. The computed crude death rate for the Yilo Krobo District is 13.6 deaths per 1,000 population. Kwahu Afram Plains North recorded the least crude death rate of 4.4 deaths per 1,000 population. However, the total death in households in the Upper West Akim District is 662 with its crude death rate being 7.6 deaths per 1,000 population.

Age specific death rates (ASDRs)

Death rates are calculated for specific age groups in order to compare mortality at different ages or at the same age over time. The Age Specific Death Rates (ASDRs) are computed as a ratio of deaths of people in a specified age group, for example the ASDR of 20-24 year-age is calculated by taking the deaths among the 20-24 year-age group and dividing it by the population in that age group (20-24 years), multiplied by 1,000.

Figure 2.1 provide information on age specific death rates. The data show that death rates for males and females are higher in ages under five years but lowest at ages 5-14 years. The 19

 

death rates start rising at ages 15-19 with more females than males and intensifies with increase in age until 40-44 years. Between ages 15-34 (the reproductive period), ASDRs for females are higher than males and this may be attributed to maternal mortality. ASDRs for males are higher at ages 50 years and older than females and this is an indication of a lower life expectancy for males compared to females. Additionally, at ages 50 years and older, differences between male and female ASDRs are very high compared with the lower age groups. =

Migration

Migration is the movement of people from one geographical region to another for various reasons. The reasons may be due to economic, education, religious among others. In the Upper West Akim District, the population as described is heterogeneous. This means that the population is made up of people from different ethnic backgrounds due to migration from different parts of the country and the West African sub-region and inter-marriages.

Table 2.4 shows migration by birthplace and duration of residence of migrants. The Table shows that the total migrant population of the district is 23,720 which represent about 27.2 per cent of the total population of the District. Out of this number, 11,946 of the migrant population who were born within the Eastern Region have migrated to the District. Those who migrated from the Central Region to the District were 3,409 and only 153 people have migrated from the Upper West Region to settle in the District. The proximity of the district to other regions makes it easily accessible to migrants from other districts and regions especially from the Central Region.

Table 2.4 also shows that the duration of residence of migrants varies. It ranges from as low as less than 1 year for 13.5 per cent of the migrants to as high as 20 years and above for 28.8 per cent of the migrants. Volta Region leads in migrants with long duration of residence. It has 37.9 per cent of its 2,434 migrants residing in the District for more than 20 years. Second is the Northern Region with 35.9 per cent and third is Central Region with 30.9 per cent. The Upper West Region has the lowest percentage (19%) of its migrant population with duration of residence of more than 20 years. =




Date Created : 11/27/2017 5:42:48 AM