This chapter presents details on the socio-cultural characteristics of Pusiga District. There are numerous issues related to the social and cultural characteristics of human societies which include education, literacy, religious affiliation and marital issues. The 2010 Population and Housing Census collected data on household composition, headship and size of households, marital status, literacy and education, nationality, religion and economic activity status in the District.
Household Size, Household Composition and Structure
Table 3.1 shows household size by locality type. It shows that, the district has a household population of 57,080 also the average household size for the district is 7.6 as compared to the region which is 5.9. This shows that, there is much difference between the district and the region. The average household size is higher for rural areas than urban areas (7.6 and 7.5 respectively). The Table further reveals that, the average household per house for the district is 1.4 and this is higher for rural areas compared to urban areas.
The total household population within the District is 57,080 as illustrated in Table 3.2. From the table children constitute about half (50.6%) of household composition, followed by heads (13.3%) then spouses (9.9%) and other relatives (9.9%) of equal proportions.
Out of the total male population, 23.1 percent are household heads compared to 4.4 percent of females who are household heads out of the entire female population.
This may be as a result of cultural orientation that makes men naturally household heads in the District. Within the households, there are more daughter-laws among the female household population (2.2%) than son in-laws (0.1%) among the male household population. The proportion of spouses (wife/husband) is 9.9 percent similar to the proportion of other relatives (9.9%) living with the household.
Table 3.3 shows household population by structure and sex. It shows that the extended family system dominates in the District (62.7%) followed by the nuclear family system (17.6%) and then the single parent (12.0%) (Single parent nuclear and extended combined).
Table 3.3 further shows that of the total male household population (27,154), the majority (61.6%) is in the extended household structure whereas 19.5 percent is in the nuclear household. In the case of the female household population, a high proportion (63.8%) is in the extended household structure as against 15.9 percent who are in the nuclear households.
It can be noted that in the District, females are more likely to be single parents than males, whether in an extended family or nuclear family this accounts for high population of widows in the District. This is evident in Table 3.2 where the proportion of males who are in a Single Parent Nuclear (4.1%) and Single Parent Extended (6.9%) family households is less than females who are in single parent nuclear (4.8%) and single parent extended family (8.0%) households.
Table 3.4 presents the distribution of persons 12 years and older by sex, age –group and marital status. The table shows that there are 36,055 persons 12 years and older in the District. The table further shows that the majority (53.3%) of persons 12 years and older are married, followed by never married (37.5%). The table also reveals that 7.4 percent of persons 12 years and older were once married, but are either divorced, separated, or widowed.
Marital status and age
As expected, higher proportions of the widowed are in the older age groups, 50-54 (10.0%), 55-59 (15.1%), 60-64 (20.6%), and 65 years and older (32.7%). The proportion of married people increases with increasing age till age 44 when it starts to fall. It is also not surprising that a relatively high proportion (92.0%) of persons aged 12-14 have never married. The proportion of the never married group decreases with increasing age until the 30-34 age group. The proportion of females who are married (57.5%) is higher than their male counterparts (48.4%).
Marital status and education
Table 3.5 shows the distribution of persons 12 years and older by marital status and level of education in Pusiga District. The data reveals that 64.3 percent of persons 12 years and older had no education. About one-third (29.3%) of person 12 years and older have had basic education and 4.2 percent have secondary education.
The difference in level of education of male and female persons 12 years and older according to Table 3.5 is that many more females are without education (71.4%) than males (55.8%). About eighty two percent (81.9%) of the married category have no education; with many more being females (86.0%).
Marital status and economic activity
In some cultures, ability to support a spouse financially is a key determinant of whether one could marry or not. Table 3.6 shows marital status and economic activity status by sex among the population aged 12 years and older.
The majority of the married population (87.4%) are employed. This pattern of high employed married females is observed for the married males as well. Thus, for married males, 90.0 percent are employed while 1.0 percent are unemployed.
Table 3.7 shows population by nationality and sex. The table shows that 17.2 percent of the population is other nationals. ECOWAS nationals constitute 6.3 percent while 0.5 percent is from other African countries other than ECOWAS. The influx of ECOWAS nationals to the District is probably due to the fact that the District shares boundaries with Togo and Burkina Faso
The predominant religion in the District is Islam (78.1%) followed by Christianity (13.2%) and then Traditional African religion (7.4%). The main Christian denominations are Pentecostals/Charismatic (4.4%), Catholics (3.0%), Protestants (3.7%) and others (2.1%).