Demographic characteristics including population size, distribution and age-sex structure are necessary inputs for effective planning for socio-economic development. These characteristics are influenced by the components of population change i.e. fertility, mortality and migration. The dynamics of the components of population change have numerous demographic and socio-economic implications for development. The objective of this chapter is to analyse the population size and distribution, sex ratio and the population pyramid of the Bia West District. The dynamics of the components of population change of the district are also discussed.
Population Size and Distribution
District has a total population of 88,939 consisting of 45,717 males and 43,222 females as shown in Table 2.1. The district is predominantly rural with 65,586 (73.7 per cent) of the residents living in villages. The percentage of rural dwellers in the district is higher than the average for the Western Region (57.6 per cent) as well as the national average (49.1 per cent).
The age-sex structure which is useful for population projections is presented in Table 2.1. The 0-14 age group accounts for 41.45 per centof the total population of the district. The percentage of the 0-14 years in the district is higher than the proportions for the Western Region (39%) and Ghana (39.9%). The aged (65+ years) in the district constitute 2.7 per centof the population which is lower than the national average (4.7 per cent).
The district has a sex ratio of 105.8 compared to 100.0 and 95.2 for Western Region and Ghana respectively (GSS, 2013). The sex ratio for the people in the 15-64 age group and 65+ is more than 100. For instance the sex ratio for the 65+ is 133.6 which means that there are more males than females among those in the age group.
Age-dependency ratio is a measure of the dependent population made up of those below 15 years and 65+ years, to the independent population, that is, those in the 15-64 years. The ratio is used to measure the burden borne by those in the working age group. The total dependency ratio for the district is 79.1 compared to 74.8 and 76 for Western Region and Ghana respectively. The ratio is higher for females (79.2) than males (79.0) and in the rural (81.2) than the urban (73.5) areas in the district. Child and old age dependency ratios are 74.3 and 4.9 respectively. The total and child dependency ratios for the district are higher for females than males and in the rural than the urban areas.
Population pyramid is a graphical representation of the age-sex composition of a population. Figure 2.1 shows the population pyramid of the Bia West District. The pyramid which has a broad base and tapers off with increasing age depicts a youthful population similar to the population pyramid of the country. As shown in Figure 2.1 there are marked differences in the number of males and females aged 40 years and above with the exception of the 80-84 age group.
Fertility, Mortality and Migration
This section examines the components of population change – fertility, mortality and migration. The interactions of these components determine the population size, population growth and population distribution.
Table 2.2 presents various fertility measurements including Crude Birth Rate (CBR), General Fertility Rate (GFR) and Total Fertility Rate (TFR). Fertility level in the district is higher than the average for the Western Region. For instance, the TFR for the district is 3.8 compared to 3.6 for the Western Region.
Further analysis of the fertility dynamics of the female population 12 years and older in the Bia West District is presented in Table 2.3. There are 28,035 females 12 years and older in the district with the highest number (4,599) and the lowest number (545) in the 20-24 and 55-59 age groups respectively. Children ever born to females 12+ years is 70,176 consisting of 35,379 males and 243,797 females.
The 35-39 and the 12-14 age groups registered the highest and the lowest number of children ever born respectively. There is no discernible pattern of the children ever born by sex. The number of reported surviving children in the district is a reflection of the number of children ever born as shown in Table 2.3. About 90 percent of the children ever born in the district survived. The percentage of males (89.72) who survived is slightly lower than the females (91.00).
The probability of dying during a given time period is linked to many factors, such as age, sex, occupation, and economic status. The incidence of death can reveal much about a population’s standard of living and health care. Mortality, as one of the three components of population growth, plays an important role in determining the growth of a population. The crude death rate can be particularly affected by age structure.
Death rates are calculated for specific age groups in order to compare mortality at different ages or at the same age over time. From Table 2.4 the district recorded a death rate of 6.7 which is greater than the region and some districts figures. Compared to districts like Wassa East (11.4), Jomoro (9.7) and Shama (7.2), Bia West recorded the least death rate in households. The death rate (also called the crude death rate) is the number of deaths per 1,000 population in a given year.
Figure 2.2 shows reported age specific death rates by sex. Infant mortality and under-five mortality rates are higher among males than females in the Bia West District. However, the death rates among females aged 5-54 years are higher than males. Figure 2.2 further shows that the age specific death rates for males aged 55 years and above are higher than that of females in the same age groups.
Date Created : 11/19/2017 12:17:31 AM