Development planning as a human oriented activity seeks to ensure provision of needs of the people. Population analysis is therefore one of the cardinal components, which helps to determine the direction of District Planning Processes in any society.

Population Size and Growth Rate

The 2000 Population and Housing Census (PHC) indicated that the municipal has a population of 123,272 made up of 60,855 males and 62,417 females and a population growth rate of 1.8% as compared to the regional and national figures of 2.0% and 2.5% respectively.

It can be seen from the table below that the population of the municipal continues to increase. The female population is increasing at an increasing rate while the male population is increasing at a decreasing rate.

Poor attitude towards birth control, high illiteracy level coupled with inadequate knowledge of the implications of keeping large families as well as immigration are some of the contributing factors to this phenomenon.

This increase in population has implications for development planning in the sense that pressure is put on the land size and the existing social amenities in the municipal. On the contrary, the municipal stands to benefit from the great pool of labour associated with the population increase and provides large markets for both goods and services.

The inter-censal growth rates have been on the rise between the various censal periods whereas the population growth rates have been rising for both the municipal and the national. The pattern is illustrated in the table below. Increase in growth rate could be attributed to the mining activities in the municipal and other factors discussed above.

From the socio-economic survey conducted, the net migration for themunicipal for a year is 80 (4.2%).

The natural increase figure for the municipal  is 15 as against the national figure of 15 (Source: Population Reference Bureau/ Data Finder – Ghana, 2004). The figure being positive has the tendency to cause a steady rise in the population of the municipal with time.



Age and Sex Distribution

The age distribution of the municipal is skewed towards the age groups of 0-14 (children) and 15-64 (the working age group) as shown in Table 1.13. This implies that the municipal is endowed with a potential labour force and vibrant youth, which are necessary for any development-oriented society. The table also indicates the number of males and females in each age group and their percentages respectively.


Sex Composition

The sex composition of the mun is not so much different from that of the nation and the significant thing about the sex composition of the municipal is that the percentage of the female population is more than the male population as compared to the national population as shown in Table 1.14. Although the sex distribution is almost at par, issues of female participation in local governance, formal education and other decision-making processes remain a challenge to the Bibiani-Anhwiaso-Bekwai Municipal  Assembly.


From figure 1.5, the working population group is larger than the combined child and aged population of the municipal. This active group if given enough capacity building can be an instrument of development to the economy of the municipal.1.11.2d Spatial Distribution of Population.

The population in the municipal is not evenly distributed largely due to geophysical and statutory reasons. In the statutory sense, the municipal has six large forest reserves covering almost 30% or 264 square kilometres of the total surface area that are statutorily protected from human habitation. The population is dispersed in the remaining land. The highest concentrations of people live along the Bibiani-Anhwiaso-Sefwi Bekwai corridor of the municipal. This phenomenon has implication for provision of educational, health, water and sanitation facilities, housing needs and security concerns. The higher percentage of the population concentrated along the main highway will improve the people access to the Municipal Hospital which is located at the municipal  capital Bibiani on the main highway.

Population Density

The 2010 Population and Housing Census further indicates that, the municipal has a population density of 141 persons per square kilometre, which is higher than the regional and the national averages of 99.3 and 103 persons per square kilometre respectively. However, greater proportion of the available land has been used for cocoa cultivation and a sizeable space of the land surface is under forest reservation, thereby putting pressure on the available land for different purposes.

Therefore, this increase in the density will put pressure on the available natural resources and some of the agricultural lands will be turned into residential uses. Figure 7 shows the population density map of the municipal.


Rural–Urban Split

The Bibiani-Anhwiaso-Bekwai Municipal is predominantly rural. The 2010 Population and Housing Census indicates that the urban population constitutes 28.5% of the municipal population with 48.3 per cent male and 51.7 per cent female. The rural population also constitutes 71.5% of the population with 49.8 per cent male and 50.2 per cent female. This is a reason based on the fact that most of the people are engaged in agricultural activities hence, the large number of the people in the rural areas. The rural nature of the municipal coupled with scattered settlements, poses serious development challenge with regard to distribution and provision of basic services to the people.

Dependency Ratio

The dependency ratio is a measure of the dependent population made up of those below 15 years and 65 years and older, to those in the “economically productive” ages of 15-64 years. This ratio is used to measure the pressure or burden borne by those in the “economically productive” ages.

The municipal dependency ratio is 79.56 per cent. Which implies that almost 80 persons are being supported by 100 persons in the working ages (15-64 years).The assumption is that everyone within the age group 15-64 years is working or earning an income which is normally not the case. Generally, the dependency ratio is also higher in rural (58.5%) than the urban which is (41.5%).

While considering the fact that a large proportion of persons aged 15-64 is either unemployed or not economically active, it should also be noted the actual burden on the employed in the municipal would also be more serious, leading to a low standard of living. A high dependency ratio indicates that the economically active population and the overall economy face a greater burden to support and provide the social services needed by children and by older persons who are often economically dependent.

This is very evident in the municipal with its rural areas having a ratio of 83.20 as against 71.03 in the urban areas. The need to ensure access to basic services, such as education and health, therefore has to be emphasized to ensure the economic security of children and older persons


Date Created : 11/19/2017 2:53:25 AM