Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is one of the major components for socio-economic development in the district. The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been an important mode of communication for social and economic activities. The formulation and implementation of the government policies and programmes have contributed to expand access of the population to ICT facilities. This chapter presents information on ownership of mobile phones, use of internet, household ownership of fixed telephone lines and desktop or laptop computers.
Ownership of Mobile Phones
Mobile phones have become one of the major communication tools for disseminating information and transacting business in the district and region as a whole.
Table 5.1 depicts the population (12 years and older) that own mobile phones and use internet facility in the district. There are 10,384 persons aged 12 years and older who own mobile phones, constituting 17.6 percent of the population of Bawku West District. The proportion of males owning mobile phone is higher than their female counterparts (24.6% and 11.6% respectively)
As part of the contemporary globalisation phenomenon, internet has become a vital communication facility for people, businesses and organisations in district. Table 5.1 shows that less than one (0.9%) percent of the population 12 years and older in the district has access to or use internet services. Again the proportion males using internet facility is higher that of females and even higher than the district average.
Household Ownership of Desktop or Laptop Computers
Ownership of desktop and laptop computers is essential for easy access to internet, electronic mail and other services. Table 5.2 reveals that 1.3 percent of households in the district reported to have desktop/laptop computers. Many more male headed households (1.4%) own desktop/laptop computers than female headed households (1.1%). 43
The low ownership of Desktop/Laptop computers by households in the district might be due to high cost of computers and also the relatively high illiteracy rate (17%). Fortunately, the central government has initiated a programme dubbed ‘a laptop per child’ to improve the ownership level in the district and facilitate computer usage, particularly among pupils and students.
Housing is a basic necessity of life and performs a vital role in the economic development of any country. However, the delivery of housing in Ghana has not been able to meet demand. This chapter focuses on housing stock and conditions, type of dwelling, holding and tenancy arrangement. It discusses issues of construction materials, room occupancy, access to utilities and household facilities, main sources of water for drinking and for other domestic uses and bathing and toilet facilities that exist in the district.
The United Nations defines a house as a structurally separate and independent place of abode such that a person or group of persons can isolate themselves from the hazards of climate such as storms and the sun.
As seen in Table 8.1, there are 11,284 houses in the district of which rural house stock (88.7%) is significantly more than the urban housing stock (11.3%). The number of households in the district is 15,169 with an average of 1.3 household per house, which is slightly fewer than the regional average of 1.6 households. Out of the total households in the district, 11.4 percent live in urban compared to 88.6 percent in rural areas. The average household per house in the urban area is 1.4 which is higher than that of rural areas (1.3).
The population per house in the district is 8.2 which are lower than the regional average of 9.1. Considering the population per house by locality, urban areas have 6.5 persons per house compared 8.5 percent for rural ones. The average household size in the district is 6.1 which, is slightly higher than the regional average of 5.8. In terms of locality, the urban average household size is 4.8 compared to 6.3 for rural area.
Type of Dwelling, Holding and Tenancy Arrangement
Dwelling is one of the basic necessities for human wellbeing and survival. The type of dwelling and facilities used by households affect their health, productivity, welfare and security. Information was therefore collected on the type of dwelling, holding and tenancy arrangement. These are essential for human settlement planning programmes and policies. 52
Type of dwelling
Table 8.2 shows that there are 15,169 dwelling units in the Bawka West District. The data also indicate that compound houses form the majority of dwelling units (47.7%), followed by huts/buildings (same compound) (24.7%), and separate houses (20.7%). The least type of dwelling units in the district are improvised home (kiosk/container etc.) and uncompleted building representing less than one percent.
In terms of type of dwelling by sex of household head in the district, more female headed households dwell in compound houses (49.5%) than male headed households (47.2%). However, many more male headed households (24.9%) reside in huts (same compound) than that of females headed households (23.8%). Similarly, many more male headed households (21.2%) reside in separate house type compared to females headed households (21.2%).
In terms of type of dwelling by locality, compound house type is common in both rural and urban areas. However, a high percentage of compound houses are found in urban areas (66.5%) than rural areas (45.3%). Similarly, huts (same compound) are the next common form of dwelling units in the district. Also separate house type which forms the third form of dwelling units recorded a more percentage in the rural areas (22.2%) than the urban areas (8.7%)
Holding and tenancy arrangement
Table 8.3 shows ownership status of dwelling by sex of household head and type of locality. The data indicate that 91.5 percent of the dwellings are owned by a household member. Also 3.5 percent of dwellings occupied by households are owned by a relative who is not a member of the household, and about the same number of dwelling units (3.5%) are owned by private individuals.
The majority of dwelling units owned by a household member in the district belong to male headed households (92.5%), compared to 87.5 percent of female headed households. There are more female headed households (4.8%) than male headed households (3.1%) living in dwelling units owned by relatives who are not a household member. Similarly, there are more female headed households (5.3%) than male headed households (3.0%) living in dwelling units owned by other private individual.
It can be observed from Figure 8.1 that dwelling units owned by a household member represent a large proportion of houses in the rural areas (94.8%) than in the urban areas (65.3%). Figure 8.1 also shows that dwelling units owned by other private individual represent a large proportion of houses in the urban areas (21.5%) than in rural areas (1.2%).
This section discusses the responses to questions on the main construction material used for the outer wall, the roof and the floor of houses in the district. The type of construction material used, the general condition of the dwelling, its location, and durability are indicators of the socio-economic status of the households.
Construction material for the floor
Table 8.4 shows that, mud brick/earth is the main construction materials used for outer walls of houses (92.9%) in the district, followed by blocks/concrete (4.3%). Bamboo and burnt bricks are the least form of constructional materials used for outer walls of houses in the Bawku West District. 54
In both urban and rural areas, more than three-quarter of the outer walls of dwellings units are made of mud or earth materials. Table 8.4 shows that, mud brick/earth are mostly used construction material for outer walls in the rural areas (94.9%) than in the urban areas (79.0%). Similarly, cement blocks/concrete is another construction material for outer walls, mainly used in the urban areas (18.2%) than the urban areas (2.4%). Burnt bricks are the least used form of constructional materials for outer walls of houses in the urban areas while bamboo are the least used form of constructional materials used for outer walls of houses in the rural areas.
Construction material for the floor
Table 8.5 reveals that, cement/concrete (58.3%) and earth/mud (39.8%) are the main construction material for the floors of dwelling units in the district. The use of cement blocks/concrete for the construction of floor is slightly lower in the district (58.3%) than at the regional level (65.8%). However, wood and terrazzo/terrazzo tiles are hardly used as constructional materials for the floor in the district.
Cement/concrete is mostly used as construction material for floors in the urban areas (73.3%) than in the rural areas (56.4%). Similarly, earth/mud is another construction material for the housing floor that is used more in the rural areas (41.8%) than in the urban ones (23.8%).
Construction material for roofing
Table 8.6 shows types of roofing material for dwelling units in the district by locality. The table reveals that, metal sheet (61.6%) and thatch/palm leaf raffia (29.9%) are the two main roofing materials for dwelling units in the district. The use of metal sheet is higher at the regional level (67.2%). Slate/asbestos, cement/concrete, roofing tiles and bamboo are hardly used as roofing materials. The combine use of these materials all together constitute less than one percent in the district.
Data on roofing material by locality indicates that metal sheets are used more in urban (87.1%) than in rural areas (58.1%). On the other hand the use of thatch/palm leaf or raffia is more in the rural areas (33.0%) than the urban areas (7.5%).
This section examines the total number of rooms occupied by the households includes living, dining and bed rooms it however excludes bathrooms, toilet and kitchen. Sleeping rooms are the number of rooms used for sleeping. Information on the number of sleeping rooms occupied by the household is an indication of the level of overcrowding. It also reflects the socio economic status of the household.
Household size and room occupancy
Table 8.7 indicates that the household size of four (14.2%) and five (14.2%) constitute the majority of household sizes in the district while the household size with nine (9) members forms the least (3.5%). A total of 45.6 percent of a single household member sleep in one room. Similarly, 57.1 percent of two member households sleep in one room (24.4%) or two rooms (32.7%), while about 53.9 percent of household size of three sleep in either 2 rooms (29.2%) or 3 (24.7%) and four (52.4%) sleep in either 2 or 3 rooms.
Also, 10.5 percent of households with size 4 sleep in one room, while 19.0 percent of households with size 5 sleep in two rooms. As much as 13 percent of households with size 9 sleep in 4 rooms, while 0.1 percent sleep in one room.
Access to Utilities and Household Facilities
The objective of this section is to provide the district with up-to-date socio-economic data on lighting, source of cooking fuel and cooking space by households for planning various interventions at district levels.
Table 8.8 shows the main source of lighting of dwelling units by type of locality in the district. Table 8.8 reveals that, flashlight/torch is the main source of lighting in the district with 43.1 percent of the households using it. This is higher than the regional average of 27.6 percent.
Kerosene lamp (39.8 %) is the second most used type of lighting in the district after electricity (mains).
Figure 8.2 shows the main source of lighting by locality type. The figure shows that, electricity (mains) is the main source of lighting in urban area (47.7%), as against 10.0 percent for rural areas. Flashlight/torch remains the main source of lighting in rural area (45.0%) but accounts for 28.6 percent of lighting in urban area. On the other hand, the use of kerosene lamp as a source of lighting is mostly used in the rural areas (42.1%) compared to the urban ones (22.0%).
Source of cooking fuel used by households
Table 8.9 describes the source of cooking fuel and cooking space by the households in the district. It can be observed from the table that, wood (80.2%) is the main source of cooking fuel used by households. This is higher compared to the regional average of 60.4%. Animal residue accounts for 9.7 percent of cooking fuel used while charcoal 6.6 percent.
In terms of locality, wood is the predominant cooking fuel for both rural (83.8%) and urban areas (52.0%). Charcoal is mostly used in the urban areas (30.6%) than the rural areas (3.5%). With regard to saw dust, its use as cooking fuel is relatively low and there is no significant variation between the rural and the urban areas.
Cooking space by households
In terms of cooking space, Table 8.9 shows that, 55.1 percent of households use separate room exclusively as cooking space which is the highest in the district. Also, 19.2 percent of households use an enclosure without roof as space for cooking while 14.4 percent of households use open space in compound for cooking. About 4.2 percent of households cook on their verandas. However, other forms of cooking space accounts for less than five percent.
In terms of locality, households using separate room exclusively as cooking space is more predominant in rural (56.2%) than the urban areas (47.2%). Veranda is also mostly used in urban (19.6%) than in the rural areas (2.2%).
Date Created : 11/18/2017 4:54:39 AM