The Gomoa District is one of the 17 districts within the Central Region of Ghana. It lies within latitude 514 north and 535 north and longitude 0.22 west and 054 west on the eastern part of the Central Region of Ghana. It is bounded on the north by Agona District, on the northeast anchsast by Awutu Effutu Senya District, on the west and northwest by Mfantseman and Ajumako-Enyan-Essiam Districts respectively, and on the south by the Atlantic Ocean and larger part of the dissected Awutu- Effutu -Senya District. The Gomoa District covers an area of 1,022.0 sq km and a total population 194,792. (i.e. 12.23% of regional population) This makes it the district with the highest population and surface area next to Assin.
Apam is the District Capital of the Gomoa District with an estimated population of 16,494 (2000 PH census) Apam is about 68km from Cape Coast and 69km from Accra the Regional and National capitals respectively. Other important towns are:
Gomoa Dugo 4,751
Gomoa Aboso 3,695
Gomoa Fetteh 3,582
Gomoa Ekwamkrom 3,464
Gomoa Afransi 3,435
Gomoa Eshiem 3,218
With a total land area of 1022.3 sq km, Gomoa District occupies about 10.4% of the total land area within the region (9,826sq km) and constitutes 0.428% of the total land area in Ghana (238,533 sq km)
Historical Background of the District
The district used to be part of the Gomoa -Awutu-Effutu-Senya District Council before 1988. The Gomoa District Assembly was then created or carved out of the above District Council with the establishment of PNDC Law 207 of 1988, which increased the total number of districts in the country from 65 to 110. The district has two paramountcies, namely Gomoa Akyempim and Gomoa Ajumako with the seat of paramountcies located at Gomoa Assin and Ajumako respectively. The Gomoa, a Fante-speaking group, constitute the majority of people in the district and they are mainly farmers. Gomoa-Maim is considered the traditional home of the Gomoa, a place where their ancestors first settled in the Gomoa area. However, there are pockets of Ewe speaking fishermen along its coastal beaches who engage in fishing just like any place along the region’s coastal stretch.
The physical and natural environment presents a lot of resources when tapped will contribute to the development of the district. These natural resources include rivers, streams, lagoons, beaches, forest reserves, quarry stones and traces of mineral deposits. Inappropriate farming practices (i.e. intensive mechanized farming, shifting cultivation), group hunting bush fires and logging activities (e.g. Eshiem, Hasowodze, Ayanful) have been the major threats to the district’s vegetation. Degradation of vegetation leads to soil infertility in the farming areas, soil erosion and its associated environmental problems. Efforts are being made in some selected communities by MOFA, ADRA and NADMO to restore the vegetative cover and improve the fertility of the soil. The nature of the soil at Fetteh, Nyanyano and Buduburam favours said-winning activities. The activities of the sand winners have led to serious land degradation. Gold mining and quarrying activities in the district are also contributing seriously to environmental problems. They are the major causes of cracks in houses and buildings in certain places.
The district experiences two rainfall patterns - major rainy season (April - July) and minor rainy season (September - November). Just like most districts of the region, the major and minor dry seasons are December - March and August respectively. Mean annual rainfall ranges between 70 and 90cm in the southern coastal belt and 90 to 11 Ocm in the northern and northwestern semi-deciduous forest areas. However available statistics reveals a fluctuating rainfall pattern. For example in l997 it rained for 54 days whiles in 1998 it rained for 38days. Refer to table 3. Its mean annual maximum and minimum temperatures of 29oC and 26oC occur in February to March and August respectively. Its relative humidity is influenced by the presence of large water bodies like the ocean, rivers, lagoons and streams. The relative humidity ranges between 70% and 80% for the northern and southern sectors of the district respectively. The district experiences two wind systems—the South-Western Monsoon, the direction of which influences the rainfall pattern, and dry Harmattan winds (North-East Trade Winds). The effects of the Harmattan are severe between January and February.
For tables refer to pdf file