The major sources of water in the municipality include pipe borne, borehole, stream, well and others. Table… gives a rural urban water distribution in the Municipality. Access to good drinking water is a major problem in most communities particularly during the dry season. The inadequate supply of pipe borne water in the Municipality has for over the years posed a big problem to the people. Only few settlements have access to potable water in the form of boreholes and hand dug wells. However, where these exists, there is much pressure on the them, and more people sometimes have to depend on other sources; such as streams for their water supply.
To address the problem associated with inadequate water supply, and its attendant health problems, there is an on-going water project; the Rural Water Supply Project (RWSP III) designed to provide potable water for rural communities. The project is currently providing 50 boreholes to 22 communities in the district. Table 1.2.4 shows the beneficiary communities and their respective number of boreholes to be drilled.
It is envisaged that more communities will benefit from subsequent phases of the project. It is estimated that 422 boreholes are needed to satisfy the water needs of the Municipality With an existing number of 192 boreholes, the Assembly’s borehole requirement stands at 230 boreholes.
The ‘Quality of Pipe borne’ water is not good in the Municipality. The pipes are very old and this creates room for contamination through leakages in pipe lines. Hence the water ready at source for consumer consumption is not good for health reasons. This has led to high incidence of typhoid disease and other water borne/related diseases in the Municipality. The major sources of water are shown in the table below.
A survey conducted by the planning team revealed that about 49.9 percent of the households depend on streams for their supply of water. This situation is however pronounced in the rural areas. The implications are that the communities face serious water problems when the rivers and streams dry up. The situation, forces households to depend on sources, which are contaminated, and are susceptible to water borne diseases. Water supply is generally inadequate, considering the difficulty women and children have to go through to meet their water requirement, serious efforts need to be made to ensure adequate supply of water for the people. Waste Management and Sanitation
Waste management is a major problem facing the government of Ghana and efforts are being made to address such. Asante Akim Central as one of the Municipality’s in the country is very much concerned about environmental sanitation. This has led to the noted achievements in the award of a CITATION by the Ashanti Regional Environmental Health Management Team for being pro-active and supportive in the delivery of sound environmental health at a National Quadrennial Congress held in Cape Coast on 19th April, 2004. The Assembly was also adjudged as the 4th Best Cleanest Town in the country at the launch of the 3rd National Sanitation Week, which was addressed by His Excellency Alhaji Aliu Mahama (Vice President) at Sunyani on 3rd September 2004.
Despite the noted achievements, Environmental Health and Sanitation issues continue to be one of the major problems facing the Municipality. This include inadequate public/household latrines thus exacerbating pressure on the few public toilets; indiscriminate defecating and dumping of refuse and excreta in drains and bush; choked gutters; piles of accumulated refuse/garbage at dump sites in some parts of localities and littering of public places. The high incidence of diseases in the Municipality namely, malaria, typhoid, schistosomiasis and diarrhoea are largely attributed to poor sanitation in the Municipality. Waste management in the could be classified into the following categories:Liquid and Sold Waste Management
It is estimated that the major towns within the four sanitation zones in the Municipality namely Konongo/Odumasi, Agogo, Juansa-Domeabra and Dwease-Praaso (Table 2.2.20) currently, generate 61,373kg of solid waste and 30,686kg of liquid waste daily.Solid Waste Management
Solid waste generation levels in the Municipality could be sub-divided as below:
- Household waste, public or general waste (in markets, lorry parks, open spaces, streets etc.). Approximately 70% is generated.
- Health Care Waste (Surgical Waste, Swabs Materials, etc). Approx. 1%
- Industrial Waste, (Saw dust/wood shavings, metal scraps, rice mill husks etc). Approx. 15%
- Institutional Waste from institutions such as schools, offices, stores, department etc. Approx. 14%
The current volume of solid waste generated annually in the municipality based on the district population of 126,477 (Population Census 2000) is 23,360 metric tones with annual per capital generation rate of 0.18 metric tonne. This volume of solid waste is generated from the five sub-municipality and consists of household/domestic waste. Over 60% of the total solid waste is generated in the 4 urban towns alone. Konongo, Odumasi, Agogo and Patriensa.
In view of the inadequate logistics and personnel, it is only 3 urban towns (Konongo, Odumasi and Agogo) that the Assembly have some arrangements for waste collection. Due to the fact that logistics and equipment for handling waste are woefully inadequate, the huge piles of refuse left uncollected are washed into water bodies, blown by wind remain are potential source to disease transmission.
Table 1.2.6 shows the estimated distribution of average solid waste generated in the five major towns with the highest zones in Asante Akim Central owing principally to increase in population and economic activities.
Although the municipality is phasing out its bucket latrine use, however there are few houses still relying on pan latrines. Due to the unhygienic nature of this type of toilet and the phasing out of conservancy labourers by the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, users are being compelled to adopt acceptable technologies. The Assembly is making vigorous efforts to facilitate this phasing out of Pan/buckets latrines and replaces them with acceptable options.
Water Closet/KVIP and Mozambique Toilets
KVIP or Water Closet and Mozambique Types are being encouraged to replace the pan latrines. Presently, about 2000 households in the district have some toilet facilities of this type. This figure is far inadequate for a district with over 10,000 houses in the 20 major towns in the urban and area council settlements. Community Water and Sanitation Programme is working in the Municipality, as such the CWSP II with funding from the World Bank/GOG, Households through a subsidy would be encouraged to construct toilets in their homes.
Public Toilet Facilities
Public pit latrines are mostly used in the rural communities in the Municipality. Statistics showed that over 70 communities are using this facility. However, the unhygienic nature of these toilet facilities have prompted the Assembly to construct modern toilets such as Water Closset, Enviro-loo KVIP, Vault Chamber and Bio-gas latrines for some of these communities to replace the old dilapidated pit latrines.
Public Vault Chamber, Biogas Latrines, enviro–loo etc
Public toilet continues to be a major sanitation problem for the Asante Akim Central Municipal Assembly. The growth of the population far out-weights the provision of public toilets. The Assembly in an effort to solve this problem has committed over 50% of its HIPC Relief Fund for the replacement and renovation of public toilet facilities in the communities. One-problem identified under the public toilet system is poor culture of maintenance of the public. The introduction of fee-paying system of ¢100.000 to ¢200.000 as user-fees and the involvement of the Private Sector in the management of these facilities is expected to improve its operations remarkable.
Schools in the primary and J. S. S. levels have been provided with institutional latrines of 4-seater KVIP under the EU Micro Project. In addition to this, other development interventions such as Quality Improvement in Primary School (QUIPS) have provided over 12 No. 4-Seater KVIP attached to schools constructed from their programme. All these interventions are geared towards the improvement of sanitation facilities in the schools.
Water Closet Septic Tank (Residential Areas/Bungalows
About 450 houses in the Municipality uses Water Closet linked to septic tanks. This facility is prevalent in government bungalow and newly developed sites and some tenant residencies. The problem associated with the use of W/C is the non – availability of pipe-borne water to flush the toilets. Users therefore have to provide their own boreholes or wells or fetch water from rivers to flush. This problem makes it unhygienic especially where the household population is high with a household of about 10 and above. There is therefore the need to sensitize developers to embrace other house toilet types such as Enviro-Loo, Mozambique or KVIP toilets.
Free-Range (Indiscriminate Defaecation
Apart from these toilet facilities, over 30-35% of the populations uses the bush as their toilet facility (Free-Range). The indiscriminate defecation along obscure streets, open spaces, roadsides are a matter of much environmental concern in the Municipality The activities of these bush users pose serious environmental health problem to the communities in respect to pollution of surface water and spread of helminthes (worms) infections.
Industrial waste is becoming a problem in addition to some spillage of dirty oil in automobile garages, car washing bays, small and medium-scale wood processing works are generating saw dust and wood shavings usually dumped along stream catchment’s areas or burnt to pollute the atmosphere. Some of the issues accounting for continuing persistent in environmental health and sanitation in the district are put as follows:
Legislative Instruments (L.I. I614) and the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development Environmental Sanitation policy makes it clear for District Assemblies as regard the delivery of sanitation services. However, the assembly’s position regarding performance monitoring of service delivery to ensure sound environmental practices is difficult in the situation where the Assembly itself is a service provider needs to be clarified. Whether the Environmental Health division will have the courage to sanction communities that encourage poor sanitation practices is something which seems very difficult for them to do as they are supposed to deal with the private sector or household operation. In addition most of the EHP are not conversant with the laws relating to these issues to enable them prosecute the offenders or culprits adequately.
Traditionally, financing for liquid waste facilities such as toilet, and drains are both capital investment. The maintenance and management has been a major constraints as most of these facilities have been provided through donor-funded programme such as World Bank Urban V, E.U, CWSP & QUIPS. The involvement of the private sector in the provision of these activities will provide some relief to the Muncipality especially in urban towns like Konongo – Odumasi, Agogo, Juansa, Dombera, Patriensa, Dwease and Praaso.
As a result of its strategic location and proximity to the regional capital, the Assembly is witnessing mass development with new developments and settlement springing up rapidly in Konongo and Odumase. However, most of the toilets and drain facilities constructed in the already built-up areas have outlived its economic span and urgent refurbishment and reconstruction as earmarked in the Urban V project and HIPC programme.
Again, newly developed areas where toilet facilities are incorporated into the plans are converted into rooms hence denying the occupants access to sanitation facilities. There is the need for the Assembly to enforce the implementation of plans submitted for signing and make sure that all the facilities in the buildings are fully put in place. Periodic monitoring should be done to ensure that designed drawings conform to the building code in the Assembly.
For tables refer to pdf file attached