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Demographic Charateristics


Population and Population Trend
With a population of about 1,695,136 million people (2000 National Population Census), Accra, Ghana’s capital since 1877, is today one of the most populated and fast growing Metropolis of Africa with an annual growth rate of 3.36%.  

The period between 1960 and 1970 saw some of the rapid industrialisation and expansion in the manufacturing and commercial sectors in some major areas within the metropolis. This factor contributed to high immigration to Accra, and the resultant high population growth rate between 1960-1970 intercensal years.

The stagnation of the Ghanaian Economy during the 1970’s had adverse effect on the growth rate of Accra’s population as shown in the growth rate of the 1970-1984 intercensal years. The decline in agriculture in rural communities in Ghana and industrialisation in urban regions coupled with the late 1980s and 1990s boom in the service sector in primate cities propelled immigration to Accra.

Table 2: Pop. and Pop. Growth Rate of 1960, 1970, 1984, 2000 and 2002
  1960 1970 1984 2000 2002
Population 338,396 636,667 969,195 1,658,937 1,801,606
Pop.Growth Rate     - 6.32% 7.51% 4.3% 4.3%
Source: 1960, 1970, 1984, 2000 and 2002National Population Census,* Projected

Nevertheless, the census population figures do not show the daily generation of people into Accra. It is estimate that the city accommodates between 2.5 million to 3 million people in terms of socio-economic activities aside the residential dimension captured by the 2000 National Population Census. 

The primacy of the Accra Metropolitan Area as an administrative, educational, industrial and commercial centre in attracting people from all over Ghana, continues to be the major force for rapid population growth, with migration contributing to over 35% of the population increase.

Distribution and Density
The gross density of population for Accra Metropolitan Area in 2000 was 10.03 person per hectare compared to 6.23 per ha. in 1970.  The highest densities were recorded in Accra Metropolitan Assembly with an overall average of 69.3-person per/ha.

At the Community level, densities exceeding 250 persons/ha occurred mostly in the dominant immigrant and depressed areas and the oldest parts of Accra such as Accra New Town, Nima, James Town and Ussher Town while densities ranged between 17.5 - 40 persons/ha. in the high-income areas.

Population Distribution by Age and Gender
Accra’s population like that of other urban centres is a very youthful one with 56.% of the population under the age of 24years.  The area is not expected to decline in the foreseeable future, short of a change in the pro-natalist tendencies among Ghanaians and an improvement in the impact of family planning, which has so far been limited.  Below is a table that gives age and sex distribution for Accra.

Table 3: Age-Sex Structure Of The Accra Metropolitan Assembly (2000)
Population Cohort Male Population Female Population Total  Populatal Total %
0-4 91852 95523 187375 11.30
5-9 90677 97887 188564 11.37
10-14 84224 94779 179003 10.79
15-19 89473 98657 188130 11.34
20-24 93762 93060 186822 11.26
25-39 84269 85598 169867 10.24
30.34 64528 65026 129554   7.81
35-39 51588 52750 104334   6.29
40-44 42464 41755 84219   5.08
45-49 35335 31477 66812   4.03
50-54 25548 23887 49435   2.98
55-59 18414 15096 33510   2.02
60-64 13603 12608 26211   1.58
65+ 31636 33461 65097   1.58
Total 817373 841564 1,658,937 100.00

It will be realised from the above information provided that 51% of the population are females and the remaining 49% males. This gives a sex ratio of 1:1.04 males to females. The dominance of females over males is a reflection of the nationwide trend where the estimated ratio is 1:1.03. the need to target women in any development programme in the metropolis can therefore not be overemphasised.

Migration
Decentralisation and birth control policies are expected to reduce both the natural birth and migration rates.  However, the infrastructure already built in AMA will for a long time make it a more attractive place for unemployed rural people as well as public servants, national and international investors. 

A reasonable average growth rate for the period is difficult to choose, but to be on the conservative side a rate of 4.4% per annum is assumed as the average growth rate for the period.  The natural growth rate will be in the order of 2.8% to 3.2% with balance made up from migration.

Table 4: Extent of Migration by present locality and sex (percent)
Sex Accra Other Urban Ghana
Male   46.6       49.4   51.4
Female   42.9       51.8   52.2
All   44.7       50.7   51.8


An assessment of the extent of  migration by present locality and sex from the table above, points to the fact that 44% of residents in Accra are migrants. This reflects the cosmopolitan nature of the metropolis and has adverse implications on the mobilisation of communities for development.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Housing Characteristics

There is an inner city area comprising a mixture of very low-density development with under-utilised service infrastructure on the one hand, indigenous, low class, and high-density development with depressed conditions and over stretched infrastructure services on the other.

According to statistics available, urban centres in the country are rapidly growing, especially the Accra metropolis. This rapid growth had led to the neglect of some of the old indigenous settlements, whilst efforts are being made to provide the newly developing suburban areas with services and infrastructure to cater for the needs of the middle-income earners mostly found there.

The result is that the older indigenous areas of Accra like Ga Mashie among others which are the historical and cultural repository of the Nation, are experiencing decay. This calls for proactive measures at inner city revitalisation to address this issue.

The peripheral residential development is usually haphazard, with barely sufficient infrastructure to support it. There are also large numbers of uncompleted houses inter-dispersed with pockets of undeveloped land which are often subject of litigation, or the inability of organisations and individuals who own it to complete or develop due to the lack of funds.

Housing can be grouped into 3 broad categories: the low income, middle income and high income areas.  The low income housing zones may be divided into indigenous and non-indigenous (dominantly migrant) areas.  The low-income indigenous housing areas comprise Osu, Jamestown, Adedenkpo, Chorkor, La, Teshie and Nungua. 

The low-income non-indigenous housing areas include: Sukura, Kwashieman, Odorkor, Bubiashie, Abeka, Nima, Maamobi and Chorkor.  Altogether these areas accommodate about 58% of Accra’s population.  Most of the informal businesses are located in low-income areas and they are the first place of abode for any new job-seeking migrant.

Table 5: Demographic and Housing Characteristics of some selected localities in Accra
Locality Population Houses AV.HH.Size
New Town 45,130 1738      4.4
Osu 44,027 5110      3.9
Kpehe 36,277 1930      4.5
S.Teshie 35,410 2226      4.4
S.Odokor 33,302 3296       4.7
Sukura 30,197 3626       4.6
La 81,634 5543       4.2
Nima 69,044 2429       4.6
Nungua 62,902 5140       4.5
North Teshie 56,949 4862       4.5
Abeka 52,302 3237       4.6
Mamobi 49,812 2077       4.8

Housing Conditions
Almost all low-income areas are built up with little room for expansion.  This is particularly so in the indigenous areas of the inner city.  Conditions are generally depressed with poor supporting social and engineering infrastructure.

Buildings are of poor quality material such as mud, untreated timber and zinc roofing sheets for walling. The housing environment is characterised by haphazard development, inadequate housing infrastructure, poor drainage, erosion and high population concentrations.

The middle-income areas are predominantly business, administrative and professional income families.  Much of the housing has been provided by state, parastatal and private sector organisations and individuals. 

They include areas like Dansoman Estates, North Kaneshie Estates, Asylum Down, Kanda Estates, Abelempke, Achimota and Tesano.  Usually, these areas, unlike the low income areas, are planned but are in need of infrastructure services.  Building materials and general housing conditions are of better quality.  The middle-income group comprises 32% of the population.

The high-income areas provide housing for the remaining 10% of the population.  They include areas like North and West Ridge, Ringway Estates, north Labone Estates, Airport Residential Area, Roman Ridge, East Legon.  These areas are all planned and have well developed infrastructure with spacious and landscaped ground in sharp contrast with, particularly, the low income areas, Buildings are usually built with sandcrete blocks, they have walls and roofed with aluminium, or asbestos roofing sheets.

There are also high-income peripheral areas like Hatso, Adenta, Taifa, Mallam where development of engineering infrastructure is not yet complete.  These areas developed ahead of infrastructure and consequently lack almost all utility services.  Building materials used are similar to those in the middle and high-income zones.

It will be realised that in general, 84.4% of all houses in the Accra Metropolis have their outside walls made up of cement as compared to 63.3% and 44.8% for other urban areas and the nation respectively.

Similarly, houses found within the Accra Metropolis have 99.2% of floor materials made up of cement while the figures for other urban areas and the nation are 95.1% and 84.7% respectively.

It can therefore be inferred that although in some instances, low income areas have exhibited poor housing conditions, the general conditions of houses in the Accra Metropolis is good compared with the national figures and that of other urban areas . 

It must however be mentioned that whilst efforts are being made to provide the newly developing suburban areas with services and infrastructure the older areas of Accra including Ga Mashie, which are the historical and cultural repository of the Nation, are experiencing decay and measures should be taken to reverse this trend.

Conditions are much worse in the low-income areas with very high pressures on facilities – about 30 person per toilet, 48 persons per kitchen and 22 persons per bathroom.  This is either due to inadequate facilities, conversion of facility spaces to some other uses other than the kind of facility provided for. 

It is estimated that about 66.4% of households do not have storage facilities because stores have been converted into rooms, while 18% of the population do not have access to toilets. Consequently they use public toilets, open spaces and the beaches.  About 72% of all pan latrines in AMA are found in low-income areas.

The table below gives an overview of the general housing conditions of houses within all the three categories of income levels in
Accra. (High, Middle and Low income Levels). 


Type of Building Materials
Material Accra Other urban Ghana
Outside wall      
Mud 9.8       33.2 52.2
Wood 3.7         0.9 1.0
Corrugated iron 1.8         0.2 0.3
Stone 0.3         2.0 1.1
Material Accra Other Urban Ghana
Cement   84.4       63.3   44.8
Other      -          0.4     0.4
Total 100.0      100.0 100.0
Floor      -           -       -
Earth/Mud      -           2.7   14.3
Wood     0.5           1.1     0.5
Stone     0.3           1.1     0.5
Fibre Glass     -             -     0.1
Cement   99.2         95.1   84.7
Other -           0.1     0.1
Total 100.0       100.0 100.0
Roof      -           -      -
Thatch      -           3.9    17.3
Wood     0.6           0.9      1.2
Iron/Zinc   48.4         75.8    64.2
Cement/Concrete     4.2           5.6      2.6
Asbestos   46.8         13.5    12.3
Other       -           0.2      2.4
Total 100.0      100.0  100.0

Housing Stock
The table below shows recorded units of housing in the Accra Metropolitan Area in the 1960, 1970, 1984 census. In 1990 the housing stock was estimated at 94,732 units. However currently according to the 2000 Population and Housing Census the total housing stock in the AMA now stands as 131,355.

Housing Stock in AMA 1960 – 1990
District 1960 1970 1984 1990 2000
AMA 22,663 40,802 64,441 70,463 131,355
Source: Managing the Sustainable Growth and Development of Accra (Min. of Local Govt/AMA. July 1994)
 
Available data on housing characteristics shows that about 72% of households of Accra leave in compound houses. Proportion of households leaving in single housing unit or self-contained is estimated to be about 3%. About 25% sleep in unauthorised temporal structures like kiosks, shops and containers (ISSER and French Institute of Resource for Development: 2001).

Data collected on the Nature of Households Occupancy in Accra from the Ghana Living Standards Survey suggests that, about 24.7% of occupants of the houses in Accra are owners, whereas 34.5%, 39.5% and 1.3 % of the occupants are renting, rent free and perching respectively.

The fact that approximately 40.8% of residents are not owners (rent free and perching) becomes a problem for housing maintenance. This is a draw back to the use of housing conditions as a classification for assessing poverty levels in Accra.

Distribution of Households by Present Occupancy Status and Locality (percent)
Occupancy Status Accra Other urban Ghana
Owning 24.7 24.1 41.9
Renting 34.5 36.7 19.9
Rent Free 39.5 38.6 37.8
Perching   1.3   0.6   0.5
All 100  100  100

Much of the housing development has taken place on the periphery in the Odorkor, Dansoman, Darkuman, Kwashieman, Sports Complex, Achimota, Madina, Teshie-Nungua, respectively.  These take into account housing development by both public and private sectors in the Accra region.

It will be realised from the table below that as much as 95.5% of houses in Accra are provided by the private sector (Relatives, Private Employers and Individual Providers), this underscores the fact that the private sector should be given the necessary incentive and support in housing delivery, especially for the poor in society. 

Table 9: Distribution of Households in Different Localities, by Housing Provider (percent)
Occupancy Status Accra Other Urban Ghana
Relative 48.8     44.9   54.0
Private employer   4.8       1.2     2.1
Government   4.8        5.7     4.1
Provider individual of Agency 41.6     44.3   33.1
Other     -        3.9     6.8
All 100.0    100.0 100.

Source: Ghana Living Standards Survey (1999)

Occupancy rates per dwelling in Accra have risen from 9.6 persons per house (pph) in 1960 to almost 15.0 pph in 1984.  Occupancy rates in Accra are now estimated to be about 19 pph.  Rate for Tema rose from 7.5 to 11.5 persons per house between 1960 and 1984.  They are estimated to have increased to 13pph in 1990.  The Housing Needs Assessment Study provides sound and significant variations between household per house, rooms per home, persons per household and persons per hectare.

Net residential densities for the different income zones range from 60 persons per hectare in high-income areas to 360 persons per hectare in the low-income areas.  The most densely populated areas are Jamestown, Ussher Town where density in small pockets exceeds 500 persons per hectare.  

Existing infrastructure in these areas is unable to cope with the pressure of these high-density population levels. The six most essential facilities required by households are toilets, bathrooms, kitchens, stores, water and electricity.

The table below gives an indication of the intensity of use of house facilities in the AMA.  Over 95% of households have access to water and electricity – although water may not come from the mains.  In the case of electricity, the average drops to about 48% in newly developing areas. 

The availability of toilets, bathrooms and kitchens varies significantly between income zones. High-income areas have average 14.7 persons per toilet, 14.3 persons per bathroom and 20.4 persons per kitchen; this is high in relation to the Building Regulations. In the low-income groups they are totally unacceptable and a risk to public health.


Table 10: Housing Facilities Intensity of use in the AMA (1990)
Housing Zone             
               Kitchen


            Bathroom
              Toilet
  No./Hse. P’sons./K’chn. No./Hse. P’sons./B’rm. No./Hse. P’sons/T’let.
Indigenous    0.74        47.6    1.41           1.07      1.07        30.3
Low income    0.87        38.3    1.55           0.87      0.87        27.2
Mid income    1.08        20.4    1.46           1.59      1.59       14.7
High income    1.37        11.8    2.26           1.23      1.23         7.1
Newly Dev.    0.91        10.0    1.12           1.20      1.20       15.2
Source: Housing Needs Assessment Study, APDP (1990)

Conditions are much worse in the low-income areas with very high pressures on facilities – about 30 person per toilet, 48 persons per kitchen and 22 persons per bathroom.  This is either due to inadequate facilities, conversion of facility spaces to some other uses other than the kind of facility meant for. 

It is estimated that about 66.4% of households do not have storage facilities because stores have been converted into rooms, while 18% of the population do not have access to toilets. Consequently they use public toilets, open spaces and the beaches.  About 72% of all pan latrines in the AMA are found in low-income areas.


HOUSEHOLD INCOME AND  EXPENDITURE COMPONENTS

 
Levels of income

In respect of varying characteristics and income levels of residents of the Metropolis, Accra has been stratified into 4 income zones to enable viable determination of level of poverty. The stratification is based upon housing characteristic and environmental conditions of the residential suburbs of the city. This has been adopted by the AMA and gazetted in the Local Government Bulletin of the Assembly (January, 2002). 

1st Class Residential Area    
Cantonments, Kanda Estate, Tesano, Airport Residential  Area, Ringway Estates, East Ridge, Police Headquarters Area, North Labone, Roman Ridge, Burma Camp, Kuku Hill, Zoti Area, Asylum Down, Dzorwulu, Teshie-Nungua Estates, East Legon, Abelemkpe, South Shiashie, North Dzorwulu, Nungua East, Cantonments, East Cantonments, Independence Avenue, T/Junction, Ridge, Dansoman.

2nd Class Residential Area      
South Kaneshie, Kokomlemle, W/Okponglo, Lartebiokorshie, Link Road, Osu, Accra new Town,    South Labadi, Mataheko, Akokorfoto, Alajo, Darkuman, New Abossey Okai, Teshie New Town, Asylum Down, Akweteman, Sahara, Chorkor, Sakaman, Labadi-Aborm, East Legon, North Kaneshie, Apenkwa, Odawna, Nii Boi Town, Old Dansoman, Achimota, Tesano, North Labone, Nungua, Mantseman, Avenor, Dansoman, Abelemkpe, Kwashieman, Agbogbloshie, Osu, South Amanhoma, Osu Ako-Adjei Estates, Sempe New Town, Tesano, East Legon (Okponglo), Kotobabi, Odorkor, Okaishie, South Odorkor.

3rd Class Residential Area   
Sukura, Nima, Aborfu, Bubuashie, Mamobi, Mampose, Gbegbeyise, Shiabu, Zabramaline, New Mamprobi, New Fadama, Chemuna, North Labone, Korle Gonno, Osu Alata/Ashante, Alajo, South Shiashie, Avenor Area, Dansoman Amanhoma, Osu Ako-Adjei, Nungua-Zongo, Kotobabi, Odorkor, Darkuman.

4th Class Residential Area   
Teshie Old Town, Nungua Old Town, Asere, Bukom, Chorkor, Ussher Town, Abossey Okai, Zongo.

High inequalities exist in the distribution of income in Accra. At the prices of August 2002, average annual household income is estimated to be ¢12,462,499.65 in the first class income zones.

Using August 2002, exchange rate of ¢8,200 per dollar, average annual income per capita was  $1,519.82. Annual per capita income in these areas can be as high as $8,000. However, people who fall in the lower qualities of the first class income zone have an average per capita income of about $350 whereas those in the highest qualities have an average annual income of about $4,000.

Table 21: Income Distribution in First Class income zones
Income Range Freq % Freq. Cum. Freq % Cum Freq.

Total Income

       ¢
% Total income

Cum. Income

       ¢
% Cum Income
1,000,000-
1,499,999
  3 7.5    3    7.5 3,749,999   0.8     0.8
500,000-
999,999
  1 2.5    4 10.0   1,749,999   0.4     54,99,998   1.2
2,500,000-
2,999,999
  2 5.0    6 15.0   5,499,999   1.1   10,999,997   2.3
3,000,000-
3,499,999
  3 7.5    9 22.5   9,749,999   2.0   20,749,996   4.3
4,000,000-
4,499,999
  4 10.0  13 32.5 16,999,999   3.4   37,479,994   7.7
5,000,000-
5,499,999
10 25.0  23 57.5 52,499,996 10.5   90,249,992 18.2
7,000,000-
7,499,999
   2   5.0  25 62.5   14,499,996   2.9 104,749,991 21.1
13,000,000-
13,499,999
   7  17.5  32 80.0   92,749,998 18.6 197,499,988 39.7
15,000,000-
15,499,999
   4 10.0  36 90.0   60,999,998 12.2 258,499,988 51.9
70,000,000+    4 10.0  40 100.0 240,000,000 48.1 498,499,986 100.0
Total   40 100     498,499,986         -  
Mean Income per annum/per capita income =¢12,462,499.65 ($1,519.82)

The second-class residential zone which hosts the largest proportion of residents of Accra has an annual average annual income of ¢7,242,187.03.  This is translated into per capita income of $883. Income is unevenly distributed among households in the Second Class residential Areas.

Whilst the upper qualities have an average annual income of ¢9,000,000 (per capita income of $1,100) the lower quartile has an average income of about ¢1,600,00  (capita income of  $195). About 65% of the zone falls below the annual average income of the zone. The third class residential zone has an annual average annual income of ¢6,509,090 (per capita annual income of $793.80).

The upper qualities have an average annual income of ¢10,703,703 (per capita income of $1,300) the lower quartile has an average income of about ¢1,600,00  (capita income of  $1195). About 65% of the zone fall below the annual average income of the zone.

Table 22: Income Distribution in Second Class income zones
Income Range Freq.. % Freq. . Cum. Freq. % Cum Freq.

Total Income

       ¢
% Total income

Cum. Income

       ¢
% Cum Income
0-999,999    3 1.8    3 1.8 1,499,999   0.3  1,499,999    0.3
1,000,000-
1,499,999
 10 6.2  13 8.0 12,499,999   1.1 13,999,999    1.4
1,500,000-
1,999,999
   8 5.0  21 13.0 13,999,999   1.2  27,999,990    2.6
2,000,000-
2,499,999
  16 10.0  37 23.0 35,999,999   3.3  63,999,982    5.9
3,000,000-
3,499,999
  10   6.2  47 29.2 32,499,999   2.8  96,499,977    8.7
3,500,000-
3,999,999
    6   3.8  53 33.0 22,499,999   1.9 118,999,974  10.6
4,000,000-
4,499,999
   12   7.5  65 40.2 50,999,999   4.4 469,999,968  15.0
4,500,000-
4,999,999
    2  1.3  67 41.5   9,499,999   0.8 179,499,967  15.8
5,000,000-
5,499,999
    6  3.8  73 45.3 28,499,997   2.4 207,999,968  18.2
6,000,000-
6,499,999
  16 10.0  89 55.3 99,999,992   8.6 307,999,956  26.6
6,500,000-
6,999,999
    6   3.8  95 59.1 40,499,997   3.4 348,499,953  30.2
7,000,000-
7,499,999
    6   3.7 101 62.8 43,499,997   3.7 391,999,952  33.9
7,500,000-
7,999,999
   4   2.5 105 65.3 30,999,996   2.6 422,999,950 36.5
8,000,000-
8,499,999
   8   5.0 113 70.3 65,999,996   5.6 488,999,946 42.1
9,000,000-
9,499,999
   4   2.5 117 72.8 36,999,998   3.3 522,999,944 45.4
9,500,000-
9,999,999
   3   1.8 120 74.6 29,249,998   2.5 555,249,942 47.9
10,000,000-
10,499,999
   2   1.3 122 75.9 20,499,999   1.7 575,749,941 49.6
11,000,000-
11,499,999
   6   3.7 128 79.6  67,499,997   5.8 643,249,938 55.4
12,000,000-
12,499,999
 10   6.2 138 85.8 122,499,995 10.5 765,749,933 65.9
15,000,000-
15,599,999
   4   2.5 142 88.3 60,999,998   5.5 859,749,931 71.4
16,000,000-
16,499,999
   2   1.3 144 89.6 32,499,999   2.8 859,249,930 74.4
18,000,000-
18,499,999
   4   2.5  148 92.3 72,999,998   6.3 932,249,928 80.5
21,000,000-
21,499,999
   6   3.8  154 95.9 84,999,998   7.3 1,017,249,926 87.8
22,500,000-
22,999,999
   2   1.3  156 97.3 45,499,999   3.9 1,062,749,925 91.7
24,000,000+    4   2.5  160 100       96,000,000   8.3 1,158,749,925 100
Total 160 100     1,158,749,925      

Mean Income per annum/per capita income =¢7,242,187.03 ($883.19)

In respect of the nature of income levels in Accra, it is obvious that households’ incomes vary even among income zones.  Income is high in High Income Residential Areas. The contrary pertains in the lower income areas. 


Percentage of people with higher income in the Third and Four Zones diminishes as income ranges increases. This is explained by figure…where linear (4th class area) descends from left to the right. The higher income zones of first and second class residential areas show higher percentage of people with high income as income ranges increase.

In the whole of Accra the annual average income is ¢7,503,749.51. Comparing with the Gross Domestic Product of Ghana, people of Accra are well off. They have   Gross Domestic Product of $915.09 far higher than Ghana’s GDP of $350.




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