PHYSICAL AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
The Adansi South District is one of the thirty (30) Districts in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The District lies within Latitude 40” North and 6 degrees 22” North and Longitude 1 degree West and 1 degree 38” West. It is on the Southern part of the region. Other Districts in the region sharing boundaries with it are Obuasi Municipal and Adansi North Districts to the North and North East respectively.
The District also shares boundaries with Assin District in the Central Region to the South and to the East by Birim North and South Districts of the Eastern Region. The position of the District in both national and regional context is shown on their respective maps (Fig 1 and 2). The District has a total land representing an area of 899sq.km, which is approximately 4% of the total land area of the Ashanti Region. About 24% (334.5sq km) of this total land area is made up of forest reserves.
Fig 1: Adansi South District in National Context
Relief and Drainage
The land ranges from flat to gentle undulating with average elevation of about 350 metres above sea level. Generally, the District is hilly with several rivers and streams. Major rivers such as Pra, Fum, Muma, Subin, Menso, Subri, Supong, Krodua , Offin and Aprapo are in the District and serve as major drainage channels. Minor streams also drain into the major rivers.
Fig. 2.3 Relief and Drainage Map of Adansi South District
The Climatic condition in the District is generally, favourable with mean monthly temperatures ranging between 26 degrees Celsius and 29 degrees Celsius. February and March are the hottest months of the year. The extensive nature of the forest reserves in the District ensures a very good rainfall distribution pattern, which is characterized by two rainy seasons with peak periods around May – June and October. The average annual rainfall figures are between 160 mm and 180mm with an average of 150 rainy days recorded every year.
Vegetation and Forest Reserves
The Adansi South District is within the rain forest belt and it is characterized by moist semi-deciduous forest with thick vegetative cover and growth. In some parts of the District, the natural vegetation is steadily degenerating into secondary forest. Relatively, little virgin forest remains outside the main forest reserves
and this condition can be attributed to persistent slash and burn methods as well as the incidence of bush fires in the dry season. Despite these improper environmental practices with their detrimental effects on the vegetation of the District, forest reserves still exist and they cover approximately 188sq.km in the total land area of the District.
The Forestry Services Division of the Forestry Commission continues do its work in the District. Protection of forest reserves, boundary maintenance and inspection, of the following forests reserves is still ongoing; Onuem Nyamebe, Kunsimoa, Cheremoase, Nyamebe Bepo, Afia Shelter Belt, Onuem Bepo, Kototintin, Numia all covering a total perimeter of 188.03 km square. Also contract boundary cleaning, boundary planting, greenbelt maintenance, wildfires/bush fire education, enrichment planting was carried out during the year. The main offence which is illegal felling and sawing of trees such as Wawa, Danta, Edinam, Mahogany, Sapele however continues to hamper the work of the division.
Knowledge of soil types in an area is an important pre-requisite for planning since it helps to advise on the type of crops the soil can support. This is particularly true for the District since more than half of the population depend on farming for their livelihood. The Agricultural Extension Department of the District describes the soil as very fertile with a high humus content, which have the capacity to support tree crops such as cocoa, oil palm, cola nuts as well as staples such as cassava, plantain and a variety of vegetables. The types of soils in the District are:
a) Juaso – Morso Association
These are mainly found in the northern parts of the District. They have been developed over Tarkwaian rocks. They support crops such as cocoa, coffee, citrus, oil palm, maize, cassava and other root crops.
b) Swedru – Nsaba Simple Association
These are found in the eastern parts of the District, especially around Subriso. They have been developed over granite and associated rocks. They support crops such as Cocoa, oil palm, plantain, cocoyam, cassava and maize.
c) Bekwai – Oda Compound Association
This association of soil type has been developed over upper and lower Biriman rocks and is found around New Edubiase and Akutreso. They support tree crops such as cocoa, oil palm as well as staples such as cassava, plantain, cocoyam, maize and vegetables.
d) Awaham – Kakum - Kyekyerewere Association
These are mainly found around Adansi Praso. They have been developed over alluvium rocks. Crops that thrive very well in this soil type include maize, cassava, etc. The various soil types are illustrated on the soil map.
Agricultural Land Use
Out of the total land area of the District, that is 899sq.Km, 60% (802.8sq.km) is under tree and food crop production. About 90% of this 802.8 square kilometers land is cultivated by peasant farmers using the traditional farming implements and methods that is slash and burn and shifting cultivation. The 10% of the arable land area is cultivated by individuals or organizations whose cultivated acreage is larger (16 acres to over 25 acres) than the peasant farmers. However, most of these people also practice the slash and burn system.
The cropping pattern in the District is the mixed cropping systems where one parcel of cleared land contains most, if not all, of the staples produced in the District. Tree crops are also mixed with other crops, especially during the first two years of planting.
Geology and Minerals
Most of the North Western parts of the District lie within the gold belt. Towns such as Akrofuom, Sikaman, and Nyankomase have been identified as having gold and diamond deposits.
Surface accessibility in the District is basically in the form of road network/transport system. It has a first class asphalt road from Amudurase to Adansi Praso on the Cape-Coast – Kumasi trunk road. In addition to this, there are about 176km network of second and 69km third class roads respectively. Footpath or tractor paths are a common feature in the District and most of these foot/tractor paths are motorable during the dry season. However, when the rains set in, due to the numerous streams, these paths become unmotorable.
Date Created : 11/10/2017 6:17:09 AM